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All You Need to Know about Water Flow Sensors!
by Team Kritsnam

A recent report forecasts the market for water flow sensors will be worth $3.1 billion by 2025 due to a heightened focus on water conservation. As sustainability concerns rise, flow sensors are advancing to monitor usage more effectively. 

Let us take a look at a comprehensive overview of water flow sensor technologies, examining the diverse categories and applications both commercially and residentially through a detailed analysis of their underlying functions.

What is a Water Flow Sensor?

A water flow sensor is a device used to measure the flow of water through pipes and channels. It works by detecting the movement of water and converting it into an electronic signal indicating the rate of flow. 

Water flow sensors are available in diverse sizes to fit various pipe diameters and can measure a wide range of flow rates.

They are commonly used in applications like plumbing systems, irrigation networks, water treatment plants and industrial processes where continuous monitoring of water usage is important. Whether detecting leaks, ensuring equitable distribution or maintaining optimal system function, flow sensors provide vital insights into water management and conservation.

Dhaara Flow Meter

How Does a Water Flow Sensor Work?

Next, the question “how does a water flow sensor work?” must have popped in your mind. Let us find out!

The main components of a water flow sensor include a turbine wheel, magnet, and Hall Effect sensor. As water flows through the sensor, it makes contact with the turbine wheel located inside. The flowing water causes the turbine wheel to spin at a rate proportional to the flow velocity.

Attached to the wheel is a magnet that rotates along with it. Nearby is a Hall Effect sensor, which is a solid-state electronic component that detects the presence and strength of a magnetic field.

As the magnet attached to the spinning turbine wheel rotates, it causes a change in the magnetic field around the Hall Effect sensor. The sensor detects these changes and outputs square waves or pulses. The number of pulses is directly related to how many times the magnet passes by the sensor per unit of time. Since the rotation speed of the turbine wheel and magnet is dependent on water flow, the pulse output can be used to calculate the flow rate.

For every full rotation of the turbine wheel, a specific volume of water will pass through the sensor. The sensor records this volume by counting the number of pulses or square waves during that time period. 

By measuring the number of pulses over a set time interval, usually one second, the flow rate in units of volume per time, such as litres per minute, can be accurately determined through simple calculations. This basic operating principle allows water flow sensors to provide a digital output corresponding to real-time flow data.

Also Read: 10 Differences Between Flow Meter And Water Meter

Applications of Water Flow Sensors

Water flow sensor applications extend far beyond basic plumbing and irrigation systems. These intelligent devices play an important role in ensuring efficiency, safety, and sustainability across many sectors.

In water treatment facilities, flow sensors are crucial for maintaining water quality. They allow operators to dose chemicals like chlorine precisely during purification processes. Minor fluctuations in flow can affect disinfection levels, so sensors ensure chemicals are added at the correct rate.

Similarly, flow sensors are vital for industrial processes that rely on water, such as cooling systems and boilers. By monitoring usage, facilities can optimise energy consumption and reduce waste. Environmental monitoring also benefits significantly from flow sensors. Devices placed in rivers and streams provide data that helps with flood prediction and sustainable resource management.

However, the uses of flow sensors go beyond these core applications. In healthcare, they are integrated into technologies like dialysis machines and anaesthesia equipment to regulate fluid delivery. This helps ensure patient safety and treatment effectiveness. Chemical plants rely on flow sensors to maintain the proper flow of reactants and solvents. This is important for preventing accidents and hazardous spills.

Flow sensors also enhance everyday conveniences. Water heater control systems use them to adjust heating based on demand to save energy. Your morning coffee might owe its quality to a flow sensor that precisely measures water for the perfect brew. Even vending machines employ flow sensors to dispense accurate water quantities and enable fair transactions.

From managing basic needs to safeguarding important industries, water flow sensors play a mostly unseen but critical role. With their ability to continuously monitor and precisely measure flows, these intelligent devices quietly underpin applications across many sectors. As technology advances, the possibilities for flow sensors are vast, considering the wide range of processes that rely on controlled water flow. Their contributions to efficiency, safety, and sustainability will surely continue to expand.

Types of Water Flow Sensors

There are several different types of water flow sensors that use various technologies to measure water flow accurately: 

types of water flow sensors

Electromagnetic flow sensors:

Electromagnetic flow meters operate using Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction. A magnetic field is applied to the fluid passing through a conduit, generating a voltage proportional to flow velocity. They have no moving parts and can measure the bidirectional flow of most liquids. 

Recommended Read: All you need to know about Electromagnetic Flow Meters

Vortex flow meters:

These water flow sensors take advantage of vortex shedding - oscillating vortexes form when fluid flows through a bluff body, and the frequency is determined by flow rate. They are highly accurate, have no moving parts, and can measure liquids, steam, and gases. However, they are limited to certain flow rates and fluid densities. 

Recommended Read: All you need to know about Vortex Flow Meters

Ultrasonic flow meters:

These water flow sensor types transmit ultrasonic pulses upstream and downstream to calculate flow velocity based on time of flight differences. They are non-invasive, suitable for large pipes, and can measure many fluid types, including gases. However, they may be impacted by acoustic noise or particles in the fluid.

Recommended Read: All you need to know about Ultrasonic Flow Meters

Turbine flow sensors:

Turbine flow meters have a rotor engaged by flowing fluid that generates an electrical signal proportional to the flow rate. They are inexpensive, easy to install, and have a wide operating range. However, they are less accurate at low flows and cannot handle dirty or high viscosity fluids without wear. 

Positive displacement meters:

Positive displacement sensors transport measured volumes of fluid mechanically and are highly precise, even for viscous liquids. However, they have moving parts requiring maintenance.

Coriolis mass flow meters:

These types of water flow sensors use the Coriolis effect induced by vibrating tube walls to measure mass flow rate along with density and temperature directly. They are extremely accurate and unaffected by other fluid properties. 

Recommended Read: All you need to know about Mass Flow Meters

Thermal mass flow sensors:

These flow meters apply heat to the fluid and measure temperature changes to determine mass flow rate with very low-pressure drop and high water flow sensor accuracy. However, they only work for gases and have no moving parts. 

Also Read: Exploring Different Types Of Flow Meters


What is the avg water flow sensor price?

The water flow sensor price can vary significantly depending on the specific model and features. On average, homeowners and business owners can expect to pay between Rs. 442.50 to Rs. 1,598.99 for a quality flow meter. 

Key factors that influence the final cost include the needed accuracy, type of liquid, desired flow range, materials, installation environment, and hygiene standards. More advanced sensors with wider flow measurement capabilities tend to have higher price points.

What sensor is used to measure liquid flow?

The most common type of sensor used to measure liquid flow is the water flow sensor. These specialised flow meters are designed to precisely monitor and detect the movement of water.

Flow sensors work by measuring the rate of liquid, gas, or solid flowing through a pipe over a period of time. This measurement is crucial for effectively controlling industrial processes and ensuring machinery's optimal performance.

Flow sensors can operate mechanically or electronically using ultrasonic detection. Some common varieties include differential pressure, positive displacement, variable area, magnetic, vortex, and thermal flow meters. The appropriate sensor depends on factors like the fluid's nature, viscosity, required flow rate range, and desired accuracy.

Is a water flow sensor analog or digital?

Water flow sensors can be either analog or digital. Analog sensors function mechanically by linking flow rate to a physical measurement like fluid displacement or pressure drop, while digital sensors convert flow properties into electrical signals using transducers for a digital readout.

So, in case you’re looking for the best water flow sensors to digitally monitor your water usage, Kritsnam’s Dhaara Smart is a smart choice to consider. As a new-age water meter combining IoT and advanced sensor technologies, the Dhaara allows for easy remote water consumption management from any location. Through its integrated telemetry and battery-powered design, Dhaara Smart provides usage data even during power outages. 

Kritsnam is enabling businesses to make informed decisions about water usage and conservation through revolutionary solutions like the Dhaara water budgeting app. 

If you have any other questions like how to install flow sensors, water flow sensor maintenance, or other water flow sensor-related topics, please feel free to contact us - we would be happy to help provide more insights.

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